What Is the Difference Between Mormonism and Biblical Christianity
By Franklin G. Huling
©FOUNDATION Magazine, Nov-Dec 2002

Introduction

This comparison of Mormonism and Biblical Christianity is made for the benefit of those who have accepted Mormonism and also for those who have not. We have only love in our hearts for the Mormon people. We trust that they will believe this and that they will give careful consideration to the things we herein present, for they are written and sent forth in the spirit of true friendliness and sincerity. We believe that these matters concern the present and eternal welfare of souls.

Let us proceed to compare the views of Mormonism with the teachings of the Bible concerning the Bible, God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin and salvation. The quotations that present the Mormon view will be taken from their own recognized, authoritative and accepted publications. The title in full, author, publisher and date of publication (so far as given) will be found in the bibliography appended hereto. At the place where the quotation is cited, the name, author, page and line of the publication will be given. It is our desire to be absolutely accurate and fair in this important comparison. The Christian view will be presented primarily from the Bible itself. The official name of the Mormon Church is the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints."

[The on-line version of this article includes a hyperlinked table of contents to help you easily navigate to the sections that may be of particular interest. FBC Webmaster]

Table of Contents

Section

Title

I

THE BIBLE

 

1. Several Books vs. One Book

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

2. The Reliability Of The Bible

 

Mormon View
Christian View

II

GOD

 

1. One God Or Many?

 

Mormon View – Many Gods and Polygamous
Christian View – One God

 

2. Was God Once A Man?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

3. Can Men Become Gods?

 

Mormon View – Men Must Learn How to Become Gods
Christian View – God Did Not Become God

 

4. Does God Have A Body?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

5. What Is Man’s Relation to God?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

6. Is God A Creator Or Just An Organizer?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

III

JESUS CHRIST

 

1. Was Jesus Christ Begotten By the Holy Spirit?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

2. Was Jesus Christ Married?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

3. Is Joseph Smith Greater Than Jesus Christ?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

IV

THE HOLY SPIRIT

 

1. Is The Holy Spirit A Substance or A Person?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

2. Is The Holy Spirit Only In One Place At One Time?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

3. Is "Laying On Of Hands" Necessary For Receiving The Holy Spirit?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

4. Are The Spirit And Matter Synonymous?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

V

SIN

 

1. Did God Plan For Man To Fall?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

2. Is Sin A Necessity?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

3. Is Sin A Cause For Rejoicing?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

VI

SALVATION

 

1. Is Salvation Obtained By Ordinances And Good Works?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

2. Is "Justification By Faith Alone" A "Pernicious Doctrine"?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

3. In This Gospel Age Is There Any Human Priesthood Between The Individual Soul And God?

 

Mormon View
Christian View

 

CONCLUSION
 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. THE BIBLE

1. Several Books vs. One Book

Mormon View

"We consider the Bible, Book of Mormon, Book of Doctrine and Covenants, Pearl of Great Price and Sayings of Joseph, the Seer, our guides in faith and doctrine"A Compendium, by Apostle F. D. Richards and Elder J. A. Little, preface, lines 1-4.

"Thou fool, that shall say, A Bible, we have got a Bible, and we need no more Bible... Wherefore, because that ye have a Bible, ye need not suppose that it contains all my words; neither need ye suppose that I have not caused more to be written"-The Book of Mormon, 2Nephi 29:6, 10.

At the semi-annual Conferences of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the "Mormon" Church), their highest officers were "sustained" as "Prophets, Seers and Revelators" by vote of the Church. The following is quoted from the Official Report of the 95th Annual Conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, April 4, 5 and 6, 1925, pages 149 and 150: "President Heber J. Grant presented the General Authorities and the General Officers of the Church; all of whom were sustained in their positions and callings by the unanimous vote of the large assembly, as follows: Heber J. Grant, Prophet, Seer and Revelator.... The Counselors in the First Presidency, the Twelve Apostles, and the Presiding Patriarch as Prophets, Seers and Revelators."

Christian View

"Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it" Deuteronomy 4:2.

"Add thou not unto His words, lest He reprove thee, and thou be found a liar" Proverbs 30:6.

"For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this Book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this Book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the Book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the Book of Life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this Book" Revelation 22:18-19.

This last book of the Bible, the Revelation, records the events with which the Church Age will close. In it is described the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ, His Millennial Reign on the earth and the bringing in of the new heavens and the new earth. Christians believe that this book of the Revelation closed the canon of Scripture for this age—until Christ returns. They believe that the penalties pronounced on those who add to or take away from the book of the Revelation apply to those who add to or take away from the Bible.

COMMENT: There is no prediction in the Bible of any "restoration" of the Gospel or the coming of any true prophet before Christ comes to catch away His redeemed ones according to 1Thessalonians 4:15-17. The only prophets whom Christ said would come in the period between His ascension and second advent are "false prophets." Hear what Christ said: "For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before" Matthew 24:24-25.

Mormons criticize non-Mormon churches for not having all the church officers mentioned in 1Corinthians 12:28 and Ephesians 4:11"apostles," etc. But nowhere in God's Word do we find that there were to be any successors to the twelve apostles of Christ. There is no record that any of the apostles ever "ordained" any persons to succeed them in office as apostles. May we also suggest that nowhere in God's Word do we find mention of such church officers as "President," or "The Counselors in the First Presidency" or such an officer as "the Presiding Patriarch." These are all additions to the Word of God. Every false faith adds to or takes from the Bible. God meets our every spiritual need by the Bible.

2. The Reliability of the Bible

Mormon View

"We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly." No. 8 of the "Mormon" Articles of Faith, quoted in The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1925 edition, page 236, line 1.

"Add all this imperfection to the uncertainty of the translation, and who, in his right mind, could for one moment, suppose the Bible in its present form to be a perfect guide? Who knows that even one verse of the whole Bible has escaped pollution, so as to convey the same sense now that it did in the original?" —Divine Authority of The Book of Mormon, by Apostle Orson Pratt (Section No. 3), page 47, lines 28-32.

But Apostle and Theologian James E. Talmage takes issue with the above utterance of Apostle Orson Pratt: "An impartial investigator has cause to wonder more at the paucity of errors than that mistakes are to be found at all"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1925 edition, page 237, lines 3-5.

Apostle Orson Pratt, who died a long while ago, even questions the inspiration of the New Testament writers: "If it be admitted that the apostles and evangelists did write the books of the New Testament, that does not prove of itself that they were divinely inspired at the time they wrote."—Divine Authority of The Book of Mormon, by Apostle Orson Pratt (Section No. 3), page 45, lines 31-33.

Christian View

As to the correctness of the translation of the Scriptures, hear the testimony of Professor Robert Dick Wilson of Princeton Theological Seminary. There is no greater authority on Hebrew and other ancient languages. He says: "You can be absolutely certain that we have the text substantially of the Old Testament that Christ and the Apostles had and that was in existence from the beginning"-The Sunday School Times, June 27, 1925, page 414.

"Thy Word is very pure: therefore Thy servant loveth it" Psalm 119:140.

"Thy Word is true from the beginning" Psalm 119:160.

"Thy Word is truth" John 17:17.

"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness" 2 Timothy 3:16.

"For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost" 2 Peter 1:21.

"But I certify you, brethren, that the Gospel which was preached of me is not after man. For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ" Galatians 1:11-12

"For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the Word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the Word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe" 1Thessalonians 2:13.

COMMENT: Why should most of the Mormon leaders speak disparagingly of the translation of the Bible? And why should some even question the inspiration of the Bible? Is it not probable that they do this in order to make people feel the need of the revelation the Mormons claim to have received and continue to receive? Are not these aspersions cast upon the reliability of the Bible in order to make people feel they must come to the Mormon "prophets, seers and revelators" to obtain the Word of God, thus bringing them under the power of the Mormon priesthood? And we have seen that there is no justification whatever for regarding the Bible as incorrectly translated or not inspired. Every blessing of so-called "Christian" civilization has come from the Bible. And millions have found the Lord Jesus Christ as their Savior by reading or hearing and believing the Bible.

It is tragic indeed that the Mormon people so greatly neglect the Bible. This is because their leaders have undermined the faith of their people in the reliability of the Bible. Mormon missionaries use the Bible only so far as they can get texts from it which they can present in such a way as to appear to agree with Mormon teachings. And they use these Bible texts with those who believe the Bible in order to persuade them to accept Mormonism. For any other purpose the Bible seems to have very little weight with the Mormons. They do not by any means regard it as the final authority in spiritual truth, as do orthodox Christians.

Next, let us consider the contrasting views about God.

II. GOD

1. One God or Many?

Mormon View-Many Gods and Polygamous

"Q. Are there more Gods than one?
A. Yes, many. 1 Cor 8:5"—Catechism, by Elder John Jaques, chapter 4, page 13.

"In the Heaven where our spirits were born, there are many Gods, each one of whom has his own wife or wives which were given to him previous to his redemption, while yet in his mortal state"—The Seer, by Apostle Orson Pratt, Vol. 1, March 1853, No. 3, page 37, column 2, paragraph 25, lines 1-6.

"The head God called together the Gods and sat in grand council to bring forth the world."

"In the beginning, the head of the Gods called a council of the Gods; and they came together and concocted a plan to create the world and people it"—sermon by the Prophet Joseph Smith, April 6, 1844, recorded in The Journal of Discourses, Vol. VI, page 5, column 1, lines 9-12; and column 2, lines 18-22.

Christian View-One God

"There is none other God but one. For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many, But to us there is but one God" I Corinthians 8:4-6.

Part of the above Scripture is cited by the Mormon Catechism to prove that there are many Gods. But a careful examination of this passage and its context shows that it means the very opposite of what the Mormons make it out to teach. The apostle Paul was here contrasting the heathen belief in many gods with the Christian revelation that "there is none other God but one."

"For all the gods of the people are idols: but the LORD made the heavens" I Chronicles 16:26.

"Beside Me there is no God" Isaiah 44:6.

"I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside Me" Isaiah 45:5.

"Thou alone art God" I Chronicles 17:26 (Jewish translation of the Bible).

"Shall a man make gods unto himself, and they are no gods?" Jeremiah 16:20.

COMMENT: The belief in many gods is fundamental to Mormonism and is in utter contrast with the Bible revelation of but one God. The Mormon "gods" are not only numerous but also polygamous!

2. Was God Once a Man?

Mormon View

"God himself was once as we are now, and is an exalted Man, and sits enthroned in yonder heavens"—sermon by the Prophet Joseph Smith, April 6, 1844, recorded in The Journal of Discourses, Vol. VI, page 3, column 1, lines 46-48.

— God and Man of Same Race

"Gods, angels and men are all of one species, one race, one great family, widely diffused among the planetary systems, as colonies, kingdoms, nations, etc." —Key to Science of Theology, by Apostle Parley P. Pratt, page 33, lines 19-20.

— Adam Is Our Father and Our God

"Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, Saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is Michael, the Archangel, the Ancient of Days! about whom holy men have written and spoken-He is our Father and our God, and the only God with whom we have to do"—sermon by President and Prophet Brigham Young, April 9, 1852, recorded in The Journal of Discourses, Vol. 1, page 50, column 2, lines 9-21.

COMMENT: Here we see that the Mormon Prophets teach that God was once a man and that the man Adam is the God of this world.

Christian View

— God Has Always Been God

"God is not a man, that He should lie; neither the son of man, that He should repent" Numbers 23:19.

"I am God, and not man" Hosea 11:9.

"From everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God" Psalm 90:2.

"The eternal God" Deuteronomy 33:27.

"The first man Adam was made a living soul" 1 Corinthians 15:45.

"In Adam all die" 1 Corinthians 15:22.

"And unto Adam He (God) said ... dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return" Genesis 3:17, 19.

3. Can Men Become Gods?

Mormon View-Men Must Learn How to Become Gods

"The couplet given by revelation to President Lorenzo Snow is accepted as doctrine by the entire church: 'As man is, God once was; As God is, man may become" 'Leaflet No. 37, Series B, for use of Ward Teachers in Liberty Stake of Zion, during September 1924.

"You have got to learn how to be Gods yourselves, and to be kings and priests to God, the same as all Gods have done before you"—sermon by the Prophet Joseph Smith, recorded in The Journal of Discourses, Vol. VI, page 4, column 1, lines 7-11.

"Each God, through his wife or wives, raises up a numerous family of sons and daughters; indeed, there will be no end to the increase of his own children; for each father and mother will be in a condition to multiply forever and ever. As soon as each God has begotten many millions of male and female spirits, and his Heavenly inheritance becomes too small to comfortably accommodate his great family, he, in connection with his sons, organizes a new world, after a similar order to the one which we now inhabit, where he sends both the male and female spirits to inhabit tabernacles of flesh and bones." —The Seer, Vol. 1, page 37, column 2, lines 11-27; quotation from Apostle Orson Pratt.

Christian View-God Did Not Become God

Satan was the first being who was ambitious to become a god. He said, "I will be like the most High." But God said concerning Satan, "Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell" Isaiah 14:14-15.

Satan's first lie to man was, "Ye shall be as gods" Genesis 3:5.

And the Lord Jesus Christ said about Satan, "He is a liar" John 8:44.

"In the beginning God" Genesis 1:1.

"From everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God" Psalm 90:2.

"For I am the LORD, I change not" Malachi 3:6.

"Your Father which is in heaven is perfect" Matthew 5:48.

"Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and forever" Hebrews 13:8.

God is perfect and therefore cannot "progress," as Mormons teach. Christ, too, is changeless because He is God.

COMMENT: Mormons admit that man is a sinner. Then if "God once was" "as man is," the God of Mormonism was once a sinner, and he is not the God of the Bible. For the God of the Bible says, "I am holy" (Leviticus 11:44). Also, He says, "I change not" (Malachi 3:6). There never was a time when the God of the Bible was a sinner, and therefore He was never a man. To regard God as having once been a sinner destroys the realization of the sinfulness of sin and the holiness of God. It also destroys the realization that God, the Creator, is infinitely above man, His finite creature. Man cannot become a god.

4. Does God Have A Body?

Mormon View

"That which is without body, parts and passions is nothing. There is no other God in heaven but that God who has flesh and bones"—A Compendium, by Apostle F.D. Richards and Elder J. A. Little, page 287, lines 39-42.

"The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man's"—Doctrine and Covenants, by the Prophet Joseph Smith, etc., 130:22.

Christian View

"God is a Spirit" John 4:24.

After His resurrection, the Lord Jesus said, "Behold My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself: handle Me, and see; for a spirit ~hath not flesh and bones, as ye see Me have" Luke 24:39.

COMMENT: The Bible uses anthropomorphic terms such as "eyes, "ears," "hands," "feet," etc. to describe to man the actions of God. But the above Bible quotations tell us that "God is a Spirit" and that "a spirit hath not flesh and bones." The Bible also speaks figuratively of God's "wings" (Psalm 17:8) and "feathers" (Psalm 91:4). Therefore, to be logical, those who think God's "hands" and "feet" are literal must believe also that God has actual "wings" and "feathers"! And if God has a physical body, how immense it must be, for He says, "Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith the LORD" (Jeremiah 23:24).

Since God the Father has no physical body, in what sense then is it true that "God created man in His own image" (Genesis 1:27)? Is a body all or the main part of a man? Is not the intellectual, volitional, spiritual and self-conscious nature of man superior to the body? All animals, even the tiniest insects, have a body. But it is in thought, will, capacity for fellowship with God and self-consciousness that man was made in the likeness of God. When the Lord Jesus said, "He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father" (John 14:9), He certainly had no thought of physical resemblance between Himself and God. If He meant that God had a body, then any man could say, "He that hath seen me hath seen the Father," for every man has a body! The Lord Jesus also said, "I and My Father are one" (John 10:30). It is because Christ and God the Father are "one" in infinite spiritual nature that He said, "He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father." A body is physical and can be seen, but Christ "is the image of the invisible God" (Colossians 1: 15).

5. What Is Man's Relation to God?

Mormon View

"I wish to be perfectly understood here. Let it be remembered that the Prophet Joseph Smith taught that man, that is, his spirit, is the offspring of Deity; not in any mystical sense, but actually; that man has not only a Father in heaven, but a Mother also"—New Witness for God, by Brigham H. Roberts, Vol. 1, page 461, lines 16-20.

"Spirits are eternal. At the first organization in heaven we were all present, and saw the Saviour chosen and appointed, and the plan of salvation made, and we sanctioned it"—the Prophet Joseph Smith in The Scrap Book of Mormon Literature, Vol. 11, page 10, lines 16-18.

Christian View

"God created man" Genesis 1:27.

By nature man is God's creature, not God's child.

"But as many as received Him (Jesus Christ), to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on His name: Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God" John 1: 12-13.

"Ye must be born again" John 3:7.

Man has been physically born. To be saved he must be "born again," of the Holy Spirit, by personally accepting the Lord Jesus Christ as his Savior. To the "born again" ones, God is "the Father of spirits" (Hebrews 12:9).

COMMENT: The Bible does not teach man's pre-existence. God's question to Job—"Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?" (Job 38:4)—instead of indicating that Job existed when God created the earth, indicates the very opposite, as the context shows. By this sarcastic statement God reminds Job that he is finite and did not exist when God wrought the wonders of creation. Had Job existed when God created the earth, the inference is that Job would have known how God effected the creation. And Job had no such knowledge because he came to be after God created the world.

6. Is God a Creator or Just an Organizer?

Mormon View

"The Creator is an Organizer. God created the earth as an organized sphere; but He certainly did not create, in the sense of bringing into primal existence, the ultimate elements of the materials of which the earth consists, for 'the elements are eternal' (D. & C. 93:33)"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmadge, 1925 edition, page 466, lines 1-5.

"The Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth"—"Book of Abraham,"4:1, in The Pearl of Great Price, by the Prophet Joseph Smith, page 38.

Christian View

"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth" Genesis 1: 1.

"God created man" Genesis 1:27.

"God created and made" Genesis 2:3.

"By the word of the LORD were the heavens made" Psalm 33:6.

"Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and He that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things" Isaiah 44:24.

"For by Him (Jesus Christ) were all things created ... all things were created by Him, and for Him: And He is before all things, and by Him all things consist" Colossians 1:16-17.

COMMENT: The Bible teaches that God both created and made the world. If, as the Mormons teach, God did not bring "into primal existence, the ultimate elements of the materials of which the earth consists," then matter is as eternal as God, and God is not the Creator but merely an artificer. The Mormon view is that God simply shaped the world out of matter He found already existing. Mormonism knows no real Creator, for a Creator is one who brings into existence that which does not exist.

And now let us observe the vast difference between the Mormon and the Christian views of Jesus Christ.

III. JESUS CHRIST

1. Was Jesus Christ Begotten by the Holy Spirit?

Mormon View

"When the Virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. And who is the Father? He is the first of the human family; and when he took a tabernacle, it was begotten by his Father in heaven, after the same manner as the tabernacles of Cain, Abel, and the rest of the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve"-sermon by President and Prophet Brigham Young, recorded in The Journal of Discourses, Vol. 1, page 50,

"When the time came that his First-born, the Savior, should come into the world and take a tabernacle, the Father came himself and favored that Spirit with a tabernacle instead of letting any other man do it"—Discourses of Brigham Young, selected and arranged by Apostle John A. Widtsoe, page 77, lines 8-11.

"His [Jesus Christ's] unique status in the flesh as the offspring of a mortal mother and of an immortal, or resurrected and glorified, Father"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1925 edition, page 472, last line, and 473, lines 1-2. This is a quotation from a statement signed by "The First Presidency and the Council of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 30, 1916."

"Now, remember from this time forth, and for ever, that Jesus Christ was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. I will repeat a little anecdote. I was in conversation with a certain learned professor upon this subject, when I replied to this idea — 'if the Son was begotten by the Holy Ghost, it would be very dangerous to baptize and confirm females, and give the Holy Ghost to them, lest he should beget children to be palmed upon the Elders by the people, bringing the Elders into great difficulties’"— sermon by President and Prophet Brigham Young, recorded in The Journal of Discourses, Vol. 1, page 51, column 1, lines 46-51 and column 2, lines 1-9.

Christian View

"The angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost" Matthew 1:20.

"Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" Luke 1:34-35.

COMMENT: Such blasphemy against the Holy Ghost as the utterance quoted last above from Brigham Young, President and Prophet of Mormonism, is astounding and actually indecent. Translated into plain English, Young taught that Jesus Christ was the Son of Adam—the first of the human family—by "the Virgin Mary."

2. Was Jesus Christ Married?

Mormon View

"The Evangelists [writers of the four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John], do not particularly speak of the marriage of Jesus; but this is not to be wondered at, for St. John says: 'There are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written!' (John 21:25). One thing is certain, that there were several holy women that greatly loved Jesus—such as Mary, and Martha her sister, and Mary Magdalene; and Jesus greatly loved them, and associated with them much; and when He arose from the dead, instead of first showing Himself to His chosen witnesses, the Apostles, He appeared first to these women, or at least to one of them—namely, Mary Magdalene. Now, it would be very natural for a husband in the resurrection to appear first to his own dear wives, and afterwards show himself to his other friends. If all the acts of Jesus were written, we no doubt should learn that these beloved women were his wives"—The Seer, by Apostle Orson Pratt, Vol. 1, No. 10, October 1853, page 159, column 2, lines 6-32.

Further teaching along this line by Apostle Orson Pratt in which he clearly and definitively teaches that the Scriptural statements about the "seed," "generation" and "increase" of Christ refer to His having actual physical posterity is found in The Seer, Vol. 1, No. 9, September 1853, page 135, column 1, line 49, to page 136, column 2, line 19.

Christian View

Christians do not believe that Jesus Christ was married at all. His Divine Person (both God and man) and His Mission — coming into the world to be the Divine Sacrifice for the sins of all who will accept Him — are utterly incompatible with the idea of marriage.

The Lord Jesus Christ was and is God incarnate, and the thought of His marriage to a human woman is wholly incongruous.

If Christ had been married, then the silence of the Bible about that important matter is inexcusable. The fact that the Bible is silent about Christ being married is decisive. Christ was not married.

Mormon missionaries do not tell people that they believe Christ was married. That teaching is "strong meat" and is only given to those who are of "full age" in Mormonism. I have heard Mormon missionaries deny that they believed Christ was married. But when I proved that they did teach it, they immediately began to defend this teaching.

Christ's "seed" and "generation" and "increase" are solely spiritual. See Isaiah 53:8, 10.

3. Is Joseph Smith Greater Than Jesus Christ?

Mormon View

"Q. Which is the greatest dispensation?

A. The dispensation of the Fullness of Times, opened through Joseph Smith"—Catechism, by Elder John Jaques, page 73, paragraph 4.

Since the Mormons teach that "the greatest dispensation" is "the dispensation of the Fullness of Times, opened through Joseph Smith," it is fair to conclude that Mormonism regards Joseph Smith as greater than the Lord Jesus Christ. This will be denied by the Mormon church, but the statement from their Catechism disproves the denial.

Christian View

"Wherefore God also hath highly exalted Him (the Lord Jesus Christ), and given Him a name which is above every name: That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father" Philippians 2:9-1 1.

The Lord Jesus said, "I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last" Revelation 1: 11. (See verse 18 to prove that it is the Lord Jesus speaking in verse 11.)

Mormonism has had a great deal of difficulty deciding what to teach about the Holy Spirit. Let us now note what the Mormon church teaches about the third Person of the Holy Trinity.

IV. THE HOLY SPIRIT

1. Is the Holy Spirit a Substance or a Person?

Mormon View

The Holy Spirit Is a "Substance"

"There are several of these subtle, invisible substances but little understood as yet by man, and their existence is only demonstrated by their effects. Some of them are recognized under the several terms, electricity, galvanism, magnetism, animal magnetism, spiritual magnetism, essence, spirit, etc. The purest, most refined and subtle of all these substances, and the one least understood, or even recognized, by the less informed among mankind, is that substance called the Holy Spirit. This substance, like all others, is one of the elements of material or physical existence, and therefore subject to the necessary laws which govern all matter, as before enumerated"—Key to Science of Theology, by Apostle Parley P. Pratt, page38, lines 27-29, to page 39, lines 1-11.

— The Holy Spirit a "Fluid"

"Jesus Christ, a little babe like all the rest of us have been, grew to be a man, was filled with a divine substance or fluid, called the Holy Spirit"-Key to Science of Theology, by Apostle Parley P. Pratt, page 29, lines 23-25.

— The Personality of the Holy Ghost

"In the light of revelation, we are instructed as to the distinct personality of the Holy Ghost. He is a Being endowed with the attributes and powers of Deity, and not a mere thing, force, or essence"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1899 edition, page 164, paragraph 6.

— Distinction Made Between the Holy Ghost and the Spirit of the Lord

"‘The Holy Spirit, or Spirit of God,’ both of which terms are sometimes used interchangeably with the Holy Ghost, ‘is the influence of Deity, the light of Christ, or of Truth which proceeds forth from the presence of God to fill the immensity of space and to quicken the understanding of men.' (Doc. and Cov., 88:6-13.) Prest. Jos. F. Smith. Care should therefore be taken to discriminate between the Holy Ghost and the Spirit of the Lord"-The Scrap Book, Vol. I, page 510, lines 7-14.

Christian View

— The Holy Spirit Is a Person

"Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth: for He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall hear, that shall He speak: and He will show you things to come" John 16:13.

Seven times in this one passage of Scripture, the Lord Jesus Christ refers to the Holy Spirit by means of personal pronouns. The Holy Spirit is a Divine Person — the Third Person of the Holy Trinity — and He is not a "substance," or a "fluid," as is taught by the Mormons.

The Lord Jesus Christ called the Holy Spirit "another Comforter" (John 14:16), Christ Himself being one Comforter and the Holy Spirit "another Comforter." The Holy Spirit was "another of the same kind" as Jesus Christ. The Holy Spirit is as truly a person as is Jesus Christ.

— Acts Which Can Be Attributed Only to a Person Are Ascribed to the Holy Spirit:

He knows. I Corinthians 2:1 1.

He wills. I Corinthians 12:11.

He loves. Romans 15:30.

He can be grieved. Ephesians 4:30.

He speaks. Revelation 2:7.

He leads. Romans 8:14.

Personality does not depend upon having a body. That is corporeality. Personality consists of knowledge, will-power, feeling and self-consciousness.

— The Holy Ghost Is God

"But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ... thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God" Acts 5:3-4.

The Bible teaches, and Christians believe in, the Deity of the Holy Ghost — not merely that the Holy Ghost has "the attributes and powers of Deity," as the Mormons teach. The Holy Ghost is God.

—No Distinction Made Between the Holy Ghost and the Spirit of the Lord

The Hebrew word ruach, translated "spirit," and the Greek word pneuma, translated "spirit" or "ghost," both mean "wind." Sometimes the adjective holy indicates that the Holy Ghost (which is the Holy Spirit) is meant, and sometimes it is shown simply by the context of the verse. Any discrimination between the Holy Ghost and the Spirit of the Lord is utterly foreign to the Bible. Furthermore, such distinction shows ignorance of the text and also of the languages in which the Scriptures were originally written.

2. Is the Holy Ghost (Holy Spirit) Only in One Place at the Same Time?

Mormon View

"The actual person of the Holy Ghost cannot be in more than one place at a time—"The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1925 ed., page 160, lines 16-17.

Christian View

"Whither shall I go from Thy Spirit? or whither shall I flee from Thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, Thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, Thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea;

Even there shall Thy hand lead me, and Thy right hand shall hold me" Psalm139:7-10.

COMMENT: The Holy Ghost (the Holy Spirit) is everywhere at the same time. He is God and is omnipresent.

3. Is "Laying on of Hands" Necessary for Receiving the Holy Spirit?

Mormon View

"After the baptism or birth of water comes the baptism or birth of the spirit. This gift from God is conferred by the laying on of the hands of men called of God and endowed with authority to perform this sacred ordinance"—President and Prophet Charles W. Penrose, quoted in The Scrap Book, Vol. 1, page 217, lines 12-16.

This teaching is simply another attempt to bring people under the power of the Mormon priesthood. A little further on we will examine the Scripturalness of the claims of the Mormon priesthood.

Christian View

"And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father" Galatians 4:6.

The Holy Spirit came into the hearts of the disciples at Pentecost (Acts 2) and on Cornelius and his household at Caesarea (Acts 10) because they had accepted Christ, and no hands were laid upon them. The Holy Spirit comes to dwell in the heart of every one who becomes a son of God by receiving the Son of God as his Savior (see 1 Corinthians 3:16; 6:19-20; Ephesians 1:13-14, etc.).

4. Are Spirit and Matter Synonymous?

Mormon View

"All spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes"—Doctrine and Covenants, by the Prophet Joseph Smith, etc., 131:7.

"Spirit is matter, and matter is full of spirit"—Key to Science of Theology, by Apostle Parley P. Pratt, page 43, line 28.

Christian View

"The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life" Job 33:4.

"Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit, they are created: and Thou renewest the face of the earth" Psalm 104:30.

God created matter. Spirit and matter are not identical but are distinct one from the other.

We come now to notice the vital contrast between the teachings of Mom~ionism and Christianity concerning sin.

V. SIN

1.Did God Plan for Man to Fall?

Mormon View

"It will be seen from this, in the first place, that, as we have before stated, God's plan in relation to man was that he should fall"—Mediation and Atonement, by President and Prophet John Taylor, page 187, lines 7-9.

Christian View

Not a line can be adduced from the Bible to show that God planned for man to fall. God plainly warned man of the penalty of disobedience, saying, "in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" Genesis 2:17.

COMMENT: It is a base slander against God to say that He planned for man to fall. If that were true, which it is not, God would be a party to the sin of man. And if God planned for man to sin and punished man for sinning, God would be utterly unjust. The Bible teaches that God is holy, just and loving and nowhere even implies that He planned for man to fall. God hates sin. How, then, could He plan for man to sin.,

2. Is Sin a Necessity?

Mormon View

"Q. Was it necessary that Adam should partake of the forbidden fruit?

A. Yes, unless he had done so he would not have known good and evil here, neither could he have had mortal posterity, and he could not have cleaved to Eve, as he had promised, after her fall"—Catechism, by Elder John Jaques, page 30, paragraph 13.

Christian View

God gave man a simple test of obedience. Man could not have had a character that was positively good until he resisted the temptation to do evil. It was not at all impossible for man to have resisted Satan's temptation. Man did not need to know evil by experience. He needed only to obey God.

3. Is Sin a Cause of Rejoicing?

Mormon View

"Q. Did Adam and Eve lament or rejoice because they had transgressed the commandment and become acquainted with the nature of evil and good?

A. They rejoiced and praised God"—Catechism by Elder John Jaques, page3l, paragraph 14.

"And now, behold, if Adam had not transgressed, he would not have fallen ... And they would have had no children; wherefore they would have remained in a state of innocence, having no joy, for they knew no misery; doing no good, for they knew no sin"—The Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 2:22-23.

Christian View

"And Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? And he said, I heard Thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid" Genesis 3:8-10.

"For the wages of sin is death" Romans 6:23.

"For He hath made Him (Christ) to be sin (sin offering) for us" 2 Corinthians 5:2 1.

"And being in an agony He (Christ) prayed more earnestly: and His sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground" Luke 22:44.

COMMENT: Sin brought no joy but, rather, is the cause of all the sorrow and sickness, agony and anguish, heartache and hell, tears and trials, grief and groanings, injustice and infamy, with which the world is filled. The sin of man cost the precious life-blood of the sinless Son of God. There is not a line in the whole Bible to indicate that man needed to sin in order to have children or joy or to do good. The logic of Mormonism would make God out to be a sinner, else He could have no joy or do no good. Sin has made an eternal hell of torment necessary and sends men there, if they reject Christ who died for their sin.

Finally, let us consider the great gulf between the Mormon and Bible teachings about salvation.

VI. SALVATION

1. Is Salvation Obtained by Ordinances and Good Works?

Mormon View

"The saving ordinances of the gospel must be administered by men holding the Priesthood, which is the authority of God delegated to man"—Elder Nephi Anderson in The Scrap Book, Vol. 1, page 511, lines 4-6.

"The Gospel of Jesus Christ is called the plan of salvation. It is a system of rules by complying with which salvation may be gained"—Elder E. F. Parry, in The Scrap Book, Vol. 11, page 321, lines 26-28.

"Redemption from personal sins can only be obtained through obedience to the requirements of the Gospel, and a life of good works"—A Compendium, by Apostle F.D. Richards and Elder J. A. Little, page 9, lines 28-3 1.

"Salvation comes to the individual only through obedience"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1899 edition, page 93, paragraph 26.

Christian View

"The gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord" Romans 6: 23.

"For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast" Ephesians 2:8-9.

"Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; Which He shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour" Titus 3:5-6.

"Christ died for our sins" 1 Corinthians 15:3.

"Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man (Jesus Christ) is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins: And by Him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses" Acts 13:38-39.

COMMENT: There is a head-on collision between Mormonism and the Bible as to how salvation is obtained. Mormonism says it is "through obedience to the requirements of the Gospel," and by that they mean the observance of all the rites, forms and ceremonies of the Mormon "revelation" and that with this observance of what they call "saving ordinances," there must be "a life of good works." Thus, Mormonism teaches that man is his own savior by his "obedience." But the Word of God declares that salvation is "the gift of God." A "gift" cannot in any way be earned; otherwise, it is not a "gift." Again and again we are told that salvation is "not of works," ceremonial or of any other sort. In fact, God's Word states that salvation is "not of yourselves," in any sense whatever. All we sinners can do is to reach out the hand of faith and take salvation as the free gift of God in Christ. And the blessed Lord Jesus not only died for Adam's transgressions, but, as Paul says, "Christ died for our sins." And we are told that "by Him all that believe are justified from all things," not merely from our inherited sins or all sins committed before our conversion, but "all things"—past, present and future. When we believe this, we so love God that we never want to sin again. Sin becomes abhorrent to us. We want to wholly obey God.

2. Is "Justification by Faith Alone" a "Pernicious Doctrine"?

Mormon View

"The Sectarian Dogma of justification by Faith alone has exercised an influence for evil since the early days of Christianity"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1899 edition, page 120, lines 29-30.

But the above denunciation is not as strong as he makes in his 1925 edition of The Articles of Faith. In the latter, on page 479, lines 33-34, he calls "justification by faith alone": "this pernicious doctrine."

Christian View

"For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life" John 3:16.

"He that believeth on Him (Christ) is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God" John 3:18.

"What must I do to be saved? ... Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved" Acts 16:30-31.

"Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ" Romans 5:1.

"Being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus" Romans 3:24.

COMMENT: Scriptures could be cited in large numbers which show that according to the Word of God, the doctrine of "justification by faith alone" is not "pernicious" but, rather, most precious. Why should it be "pernicious" to Mormonism? Is it because it destroys the claims of the Mormon priesthood? The word freely in Romans 3:24 means "gratuitously"—absolutely free; so are we justified by faith alone in the Lord Jesus. There is no real conflict between the teachings of the apostles Paul and James. One who has true faith in Christ unto salvation will be careful to maintain good works" (Titus 3:8). But he will do "good works" not in order to be saved but because he is saved. There is a world of difference between doing good works to be saved and doing good works because one is saved. A genuine believer in Christ is saved not by what he does for Christ but by what Christ, on Calvary's Cross, did for him.

3. In This Gospel Age Is There Any Human Priesthood Between the Individual Soul and God?

Mormon View

"This people of the last days profess to have the Priesthood of the Almighty, the power to act in the name of God, which power commands respect both on earth and in heaven"—The Articles of Faith, by Apostle James E. Talmage, 1925 edition, page 204, lines 12-15.

"Men who hold the priesthood possess divine authority thus to act for God; and by possessing part of God's power they are in reality part of God; that is, in the sense of being part of the great governing power that extends throughout the universe—"A New Witness for God, by Elder Brigham H. Roberts, Vol. 1, page 187, lines 13-17.

"The saving ordinances of the gospel must be administered by men holding the Priesthood, which is the authority of God delegated to man"—Elder Nephi Anderson in The Scrap Book, Vol. 1, page 511, lines 4-6.

Christian View

"But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should show forth the praises of Him who hath called you out of darkness into His marvellous light" 1Peter 2:9.

"And [Christ] hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father; to Him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen" Revelation 1:6.

"By Him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to His name" Hebrews 13:15.

"For there is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus" 1Timothy 2:5.

COMMENT: The Mormons claim to have had restored to them the "Aaronic" and the "Melchizedekan" priesthoods. Not a line from Scripture can be cited to show that any such "priesthood" orders ever existed in the church of Jesus Christ. The "Aaronic" priesthood belonged to the Jews alone. When the Lord Jesus Christ came and died on the cross, fulfilling the types of the Old Testament priesthood and offerings, this priesthood was done away with forever. Such is the teaching of the whole of the epistle to the Hebrews. And as to the priesthood "after the order of Melchisedec" (Hebrews 5:6), the Scriptures show that none ever held it but the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. It was never passed on to anyone. There is a royal priesthood of all true believers in Christ; all are in it, and there is no "greater" or "lesser" priesthood such as Mormonism has. Both Mormonism and Romanism teach that there are many priests—mediators—between God and men. But the Bible teaches that the Lord Jesus Christ is the one and only Mediator (priest) between God and men. Any earthly priesthood that claims to come between the soul and God today is an insult to the Lord Jesus Christ.

Mormons make much of the matter of "proper authority" to preach and perform ordinances. They say they alone have it. They quote, "And no man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron" (Hebrews 5:4). But Aaron was not called to preach. He was the high priest of Israel. And there was only one high priest at a time! And we have seen that Christ terminated the Aaronic priesthood by His death for us, whereby He became our eternal High Priest. This Scripture has not the remotest reference to "authority." The Mormons simply imitate the Roman Catholics in making priestly assumptions for the sake of priestly power over the people. Every believer in the Lord Jesus Christ is commissioned of Christ to "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen" (Matthew 28:19-20).

To every reconciled one, Christ has committed the ministry of reconciliation. "And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to Himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation" (2 Corinthians 5:18). Every true believer in Christ is to be a witness for Christ.

Mormonism claims to be the true church of Christ. President and Prophet Charles W. Penrose, in his leaflet, "Why I am a 'Mormon," page 4, lines 25-26, says, "It is the only religious system that professes to have been established by direct divine authority." But the Word of God says, "And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved" (Acts 2:47). The teaching of the whole New Testament is that every one who is saved by faith in Christ is a member of Christ's true church.

CONCLUSION

From our consideration of the authoritative teachings of Mormonism and the teachings of the Bible, the Word of God, we have seen that these teachings are as different as day and night and as far apart as north is from south.

May God keep you, my dear reader, from this awful snare of Satan if you know the Lord Jesus Christ as your personal Savior. And if you are not saved, accept the Son of God as your Savior immediately. God's Word says, "Now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation" (2 Corinthians 6:2). "To day if ye will hear His voice, harden not your hearts" (Hebrews 3:7-8). "He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace?" (Hebrews 10:28-29).

We rejoice that God has brought many precious souls out of the darkness of Mormonism into the light and liberty of the children of God. If you are now entangled in this false faith, may the dear Lord deliver you. Again, God's Word declares, "The entrance of Thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the simple" (Psalm 119:130). Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life" (John 8:12).

While we have written about the errors of Mormonism in a clear and straightforward manner, nothing but kindness has been in our hearts, for we truly desire to glorify God and to see lost souls come to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. We have not discussed Mormonism fully but have presented enough information to show that it is not Christianity at all. Christians ought not to receive Mormon missionaries into their homes. Concerning false teachers, the apostle John writes: "Receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed: For he that biddeth him God speed is partaker of his evil deeds" (2 John 10-11).

Do not be deceived by claims of miraculous manifestations made in support of Mormonism. The Lord Jesus declared, "Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Thy name? and in Thy name have cast out devils? and in Thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from Me, ye that work iniquity" (Matthew 7:22-23).

Iniquity is any departure from or violation of God's own Word. Christ does not deny that miracles and prophesying were accomplished in His name, but He calls them "iniquity" because they were done by Satan's power to endorse that which was false to Christ's Word. Therefore, He says, "I never knew you."

No matter what "light" is claimed by false teachers, the Word of God declares, "If they speak not according to this Word, it is because there is no light in them" (Isaiah 8:20).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The full title, author, publisher and place and date of publication of the Mormon authoritative books quoted from in the preceding pages is given below:

  1. Articles of Faith, The. A series of lectures on the principal doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, by Dr. James E. Talmage. Written by appointment and published by the Church. Deseret News, Salt Lake City, 1899. Also 1925 edition of the same. Dr. Talmage is [was, Ed.] one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church.

  2. Book of Mormon, The. Translated by Joseph Smith, Jr. Bureau of Information, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Publishers, Temple Block, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1905.

  3. Catechism for Children, A. Exhibiting the Prominent Doctrines of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, by Elder John Jaques. Published by George Q. Cannon, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1872.

  4. Compendium, A, of the Doctrines of the Gospel. Apostle F. D. Richards and Elder, J.A. Little, Compilers. 3d Stereotype Edition. Geo. Q. Cannon & Sons Co., Printers, Salt Lake City, 1898.

  5. Discourses of Brigham Young, Second President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Selected and Arranged by Apostle John A. Widtsoe. Published by Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, 1925.

  6. Divine Authority of The Book of Mormon. (Section No. 3.) By Orson Pratt, one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Bound in the "Utah Pamphlets," Library No. U.040, P. 186, V. 16.

  7. Doctrine and Covenants, The, of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Containing revelations given to Joseph Smith, The Prophet, with some additions by his Successors in the Presidency of the Church. Published by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, U. S. A., 1923.

  8. Journal of Discourses, The. Vol. I By Brigham Young, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, his two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles and others. Reported by G. D. Watt and humbly dedicated to the Latter-day Saints of the world. Published by F. D. and S. W. Richards, 1854, 15 Wilton St., Liverpool, and Latter-day Saints' Book Depot, 35 Jewin St., London.

  9. Journal of Discourses, The. Vol. VI. Delivered by President Brigham Young, his two Counsellors, the Twelve Apostles and others. Reported by G. D. Watt, J. V. Long and others and humbly dedicated to the Latter-day Saints in all the world. Edited and published by Asa Calkin, 42 Islington, Liverpool and Latter-day Saints' Book Depot, 35 Jewin St., London, 1859.

  10. Key to Science of Theology, A. By Apostle Parley P. Pratt. Published by F. D. Richards, 15 Wilton St., Liverpool and Latter-day Saints' Book Depot, 35 Jewin St., London, 1855.

  11. Mediation and Atonement of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. By President John Taylor. Published by Deseret News Publishing Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1892.

  12. New Witness for God, A. By Elder B. H. Roberts. Vol. I. Published by Geo. Q. Cannon & Sons Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1895. Approved by F. D. Richards, one of the Twelve Apostles, and others.

  13. Pearl of Great Price, The. A selection from the revelations, translations and narrations of Joseph Smith, first Prophet, Seer and Revelator to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Published by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, U. S. A., 1923.

  14. Scrap Book of Mormon Literature, Vols. I and 11, published by Ben E. Rich.

  15. Seer, The. March 1853, No. 3; September 1853, No. 9; and October 1853, No. 10. By Apostle Orson Pratt of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Authorized by Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards, First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 13, 1852.


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