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Geneva Study Notes
Romans Chapter 5

Romans 5:1
5:1 Therefore being {1} justified by faith, we have peace with
    God through our Lord Jesus Christ:

 (1) Another argument taken from the effects: we are justified
     with that which truly appeases our conscience before God:
     and faith in Christ does appease our conscience and not the
     law, as it was said before, therefore by faith we are
     justified, and not by the law.

Romans 5:2
5:2 {2} By whom also we {a} have access by faith into this grace
    {b} wherein we {c} stand, {3} and {d} rejoice in hope of the
    glory of God.

 (2) Whereas quietness of conscience is attributed to faith, it
     is to be referred to Christ, who is the giver of faith
     itself, and in whom faith itself is effectual.
     (a) We must know by this, that we still receive the same
         effect from faith.
     (b) By which grace, that is, by which gracious love and
         good will, or that state unto which we are graciously
         taken.
     (c) We stand steadfast.
 (3) A preventing of an objection against those who, beholding
     the daily miseries and calamities of the Church, think that
     the Christians dream when they brag of their felicity: to
     whom the apostle answers, that their felicity is laid up
     under hope of another place: which hope is so certain and
     sure, that they rejoice for that happiness just as if they
     presently enjoyed it.
     (d) Our minds are not only quiet and settled, but we are
         also marvellously glad, and have great joy because of
         the heavenly inheritance which awaits us.

Romans 5:3
5:3 {4} And not only [so], but we glory in tribulations also:
    {5} knowing that tribulation worketh patience;

 (4) Tribulation itself gives us different and various occasions
     to rejoice, and more than this it does not make us
     miserable.
 (5) Afflictions make us use to being patient, and patience
     assures us of the goodness of God, and this experience
     confirms and fosters our hope, which never deceives us.

Romans 5:5
5:5 {6} And hope maketh not ashamed; because the {e} love of God
    is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is
    given unto us.

 (6) The foundation of hope is an assured testimony of the
     conscience, by the gift of the Holy Spirit, that we are
     loved by God, and this is nothing else but that which we
     call faith, from which it follows that through faith our
     consciences are quieted.
     (e) With which he loves us.

Romans 5:6
5:6 {7} For when we were yet without strength, in due {f} time
    Christ died for the ungodly.

 (7) A sure comfort in adversity, so that our peace and
     quietness of conscience are not troubled: for he that so
     loved them that were of no strength and while they were yet
     sinners, that he died for them, how can he neglect them,
     having now been sanctified and living in him?
     (f) At an appropriate and proper time which the Father had
         appointed.

Romans 5:7
5:7 {8} For scarcely {g} for a righteous man will one die: yet
    peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.

 (8) An amplifying of the love of God towards us, so that we
     cannot doubt it, who delivered Christ to death for the
     unjust and for them from whom he could receive no useful
     thing, and, what is more, for his very enemies.  How can it
     be then that Christ, being now alive, should not save them
     from destruction whom by his death he justifies and
     reconciles.
     (g) In the place of a just man.

Romans 5:8
5:8 But God {h} commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we
    were yet {i} sinners, Christ died for us.

    (h) He commends his love toward us, so that in the midst of
        our afflictions we may know assuredly that he will be
        present with us.
    (i) While sin reigned in us.

Romans 5:9
5:9 Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall
    be saved from {k} wrath through him.

    (k) From affliction and destruction.

Romans 5:11
5:11 {9} And not only [so], but we also joy in God through our
     Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the
     atonement.

 (9) He now passes over to the other part of justification,
     which consists in the free imputation of the obedience of
     Christ: so that to the remission of sins, there is added
     moreover and besides, the gift of Christ's righteousness
     imputed or put upon us by faith, which swallows up that
     unrighteousness which flowed from Adam into us, and all the
     fruits of it: so that in Christ we do not only cease to
     be unjust, but we begin also to be just.

Romans 5:12
5:12 {10} Wherefore, as by {l} one man {m} sin entered into the
     world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men,
     {n} for that all have sinned:

 (10) From Adam, in whom all have sinned, both guiltiness and
      death (which is the punishment of the guiltiness) came
      upon all.
      (l) By Adam, who is compared with Christ, and similar to
          him in this, that both of them make those who are
          theirs partakers of that which they have: but they are
          not the same in this, that Adam derives sin into them
          that are his, even into their very nature, and that to
          death: but Christ makes them that are his partakers of
          his righteousness by grace, and that to life.
      (m) By sin is meant that disease which is ours by
          inheritance, and men commonly call it original sin:
          for so he calls that sin in the singular number,
          whereas if he speaks of the fruits of it, he uses the
          plural number, calling them sins.
      (n) That is, in Adam.

Romans 5:13
5:13 {11} (For until {o} the law sin was in the world: but sin
     is not {p} imputed when there is no law.

 (11) That this is so, that both guiltiness and death began not
      after the giving and transgressing of law of Moses, is
      evident in that men died before that law was given: for in
      that they died, sin, which is the cause of death, existed
      then: and in such a way, that it was also imputed: because
      of this it follows that there was then some law, the
      breach of which was the cause of death.
      (o) Even from Adam to Moses.
      (p) Where there is no law made, no man is punished as
          faulty and guilty.

Romans 5:14
5:14 {12} Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even
     over {q} them that had not sinned after the {r} similitude
     of Adam's transgression, {13} who is the figure of him that
     was to come.

 (12) But that this law was not the universal law, and that
      death did not proceed from any actual sin of everyone
      particularly, it appears by this, that the very infants
      which neither could ever know nor transgress that natural
      law, are nonetheless dead as well as Adam.
      (q) Our infants.
      (r) Nor after the manner of sin of those who are older,
          following their lusts: but yet the whole posterity was
          corrupted in Adam when he knowingly and willingly
          sinned.
 (13) Now that first Adam corresponds to the latter, who is
      Christ, as it is afterward declared.

Romans 5:15
5:15 {14} But not as the offence, so also [is] the free gift.
     For if through the offence of {s} one many be dead, much
     more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by
     one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

 (14) Adam and Christ are compared together in this respect,
      that both of them give and yield to theirs that which is
      their own: but the first difference between them is this,
      that Adam by nature has spread his fault to the
      destruction of many, but Christ's obedience has be grace
      overflowed to many.
      (s) That is, Adam.

Romans 5:16
5:16 {15} And not as [it was] by one that sinned, [so is] the
     gift: for the judgment [was] by one to condemnation, but
     the free gift [is] of many offences unto {t} justification.

 (15) Another inequality consists in this, that by Adam's one
      offence men are made guilty, but the righteousness of
      Christ imputed unto us freely, does not only absolve us
      from that one fault, but from all others.
      (t) To the sentence of absolution, by which we are
          acquitted and pronounced righteous.

Romans 5:17
5:17 {16} For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much
     more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift
     of righteousness shall {u} reign in life by one, Jesus
     Christ.)

 (16) The third difference is that the righteousness of Christ,
      being imputed to us by grace, is of greater power to bring
      life, than the offence of Adam is to condemn his posterity
      to death.
      (u) Be partakers of true and everlasting life.

Romans 5:18
5:18 {17} Therefore as by the offence of one [judgment came]
     upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness
     of one [the free gift came] upon all men unto {x}
     justification of life.

 (17) Therefore, to be short, as by one man's offence the
      guiltiness came on all men to make them subject to death,
      so on the opposite side, the righteousness of Christ,
      which by God's mercy is imputed to all believers,
      justifies them, that they may become partakers of
      everlasting life.
      (x) Not only because our sins are forgiven us, but also
          because the righteousness of Christ is imputed to us.

Romans 5:19
5:19 {18} For as by one man's {y} disobedience {z} many were
     made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made
     righteous.

 (18) The foundation of this whole comparison is this, that
      these two men are set as two heads or roots, so that out
      of the one comes sin by nature, and from the other
      righteousness by grace springs forth upon others.
      (y) So then, sin enters not into us only by following the
          steps of our forefathers, but we receive corruption
          from him by inheritance.
      (z) The word "many" is contrasted with the words "a few".

Romans 5:20
5:20 {19} Moreover the law {a} entered, that the offence might
     abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more {b}
     abound:

 (19) A preventing of an objection: why then did the law of
      Moses then enter?  So that men might be so much more the
      guilty, and the benefit of God in Christ Jesus be all the
      more glorious.
      (a) In addition to that disease which all men were
          infected with by being defiled with one man's sin, the
          law entered.
      (b) Grace was poured so plentifully from heaven that it
          did not only counterbalance sin, but beyond this it
          surpassed it.



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